Late adolescence is turmoil. During this time, age twelve to eighteen years others become more important. Little by little they leave the family, first emotionally then physically.
This is hard on parents. Parents are asked to see the adult in the child. Parents need to change how they talk. What was appropriate before is not anymore. The children are being reborn (powerful hormonal changes are occurring) and are very insecure. They see adulthood coming and are very interested in themselves.
All children at this age have an inferiority complex. They are convinced they are being watched. They imagine everyone is looking at them. They don’t have a stable inside or outside anymore. It is also a very idealistic time. They need to be exposed to heroes and idealists. They want to know they have a role to play. They respond to people who make a difference.
The hardest part in our society is that they are seen as useless. Society is telling them there is no place for them until they get older. The way out for this is often the arts, music and drama.
This is the time that the child develops significant relationships with other adults. There is a decrease in IQ during this period. The child has a decreased interest in academic learning when they are really growing and going through great physical changes.
It is a time to train for self-sufficiency. Connect lessons with practical, concrete experiences. This is a good time to learn about the independence and interdependence of nature.
At the age of three, a new consciousness appears clearly and fully. It is as though the child’s life is beginning again, but this time as a “conscious creator”. The child now wants to master his or her environment and exercise his/her will. The child is always busy doing something with his/her hands, guided by intelligence. `
The first stage of development is the stage of the absorbent mind. It is a very powerful time of construction and self-adaptation to the Child’s time, place and culture.
This is the Plane of fundamental importance for the formation of the individual. The infant from 0-3 is identified by Montessori as a “Spiritual Embryo”, as the infant has, within him/herself “potentials”, which determine his or her development, seen as empty vessels, waiting to be filled with knowledge, language, intellect and culture.
There exists within this inert being, a global power, a human creative essence, which drives her or him to form a human being, of his time, civilization and associated culture. The newborn child has to perform formative work, which corresponds in the psychological sphere, to the one just done by the embryo in the physical sphere. In this psycho-embryonic period, various powers develop separately and independently of each other i.e. arm and leg movements, sensory movements, language etc. At this stage, there is no unity in the personality. Montessori called the infant from 0-3 the “unconscious creator”.
THE FOUR PLANES OF DEVELOPMENT
The four Planes (or phases) of development is an overall vision of Montessori’s
developmental psychology from infancy to adulthood. Her vision of the whole of
development and growth was not her own. It provides a holistic view of the developing human being and explains the constant Montessori idea of the importance of education as a “help to life”. `
The four Planes of development define the stages of human growth from birth to biological maturity. Each stage lasts approximately six years and a different set of psychological characteristics can be observed in each stage.
Human tendencies manifest according to these characteristics. Sensitive periods guide each stage of development and are most pronounced in the first stage.
Infancy 0 – 6 years
During birth to age six the child develops his psyche and makes great physical changes.
6 – 12 years
Adolescence 12 – 18 yearsAges twelve to eighteen are a period of intense physical and psychic change. During this period the construction of the individual in relation to society occurs.
Twelve years of age is a line of demarcation. What happens before is considered to be the age of childhood and what happens after is preparation of adulthood. This is when the youth accomplishes the transformation into the adult member of the species and creates a social self who will assume the role of contributor to society itself.
12 – 18 years
Maturity 18-24 years
Quote by Maria Montessori:
Mario Montessori said: “…the prepared environment should…reflect that amount of organization and order necessary for community to function properly”.
There are similarities betwenn the Primary/Children’s House and the Elementary/Primary environments:
Both environments serve the needs of each child and provides for the manifestation of the tendencies for each plane.
3 to 6
6 to 12
The 2nd plane child is interested in how the world came to be.
We give them the keys to their imagination.
The child can use this imagination to reconstruct the past, see the present and visualize the future. He/She can identify the mistakes that have been made and give possibility for correction.
The information given needs to be clear and limited to what is essential. It needs to be related to their interest in life, their questions and their seeking intellects.
It all should give a vision of creation and the human kind.
Examples of humans that personify compashion and serenity in their efforts to change the course of time, should be given as much as possible. It is important to appeal to the spirit of the child and not just the senses.
All this information, lessons, stories and facts are told to give keys for the child’s own exploration.
Montessori called this